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LED Basics
 

Here are some basic facts about LED: 
  • A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source
  • The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers—electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon (Electroluminescence).
  • The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction.
  • In general, a flat-surface uncoated LED semiconductor chip will emit light only perpendicular to the semiconductor's surface, and a few degrees to the side, in a cone shape referred to as the light cone, cone of light, or the escape cone.

 

* Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode
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