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Index: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Beam profile

The measurement of the spatial luminous intensity distribution of different types of light sources in polar coordinate axis

Chromaticity

is an objective specification of the quality of a color determined by its hue and colorfulness (saturation). For example, the white point of an sRGB display is an x,y chromaticity of [0.3127,0.3290]. z chromaticity is equal to 1-x-y = 1- 0.3127 -0.3290 = 0.3583. In this model, y means luminance or the brightness of a color, z is quasi-equal to blue stimulation, and x is roughly the red stimulation.

Correlated color temperature

power is the measure of the perceived power of light. It differs from radiant flux, the measure of the total power of light emitted, in that luminous flux is adjusted to reflect the varying sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light.

Color rendering index (CRI)

is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source. The CRI is calculated by comparing the color rendering of the test source to that of a "perfect" source which is a black body radiator for sources with correlated color temperatures under 5000 K, and a phase of daylight otherwise.

To help indicate how colors will appear under different light sources, a system was devised some years ago that mathematically compares how a light source shifts the location of eight specified pastel colors on a version of the C.I.E. color space as compared to the same colors lighted by a reference source of the same Color Temperature. If there is no change in appearance, the source in question is given a CRI of 100 by definition. From 2000K to 5000K, the reference source is the Black Body Radiator and above 5000K, it is an agreed upon form of daylight.

Color temperature

Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light s. The color temperature of a light source is thetemperature of an ideal black body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is conventionally stated in the unit of absolute temperature, the kelvin, having the unit symbol K.

Color temperatures over 5,000K are called cool colors (blueish white), while lower color temperatures (2,700–3,000 K) are called warm colors (yellowish white through red). The e spectral peak is shifted towards shorter wavelengths (resulting in a more blueish white) for higher temperatures. Candle flame is 1850K, and day light is 6500K.

(Luminous) Efficacy

is a measure of how well a light source produces visible light. It is the ratio of luminous flux to power. Depending on context, the power can be either the radiant flux of the source's output, or it can be the total electric power consumed by the source.

Foot candle (fc)

The unit is defined as the amount of illumination the inside surface of a 1-foot radius sphere would be receiving if there were a uniform point source of one candela in the exact center of the sphere. Alternatively, it can be defined as the illuminance on a 1-square foot surface of which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen

One footcandle ≈ 10.764 lux.(=lm/m2)

(Luminous) Flux

 is the measure of the perceived power of light. The SI unit of luminous flux is the lumen (lm).

IP code

The IP Code (or Ingress Protection Rating, sometimes also interpreted as International Protection Rating) consists of the letters IP followed by two digits or one digit and one letter and an optional letter. As defined in international standard IEC 60529, IP Code classifies and rates the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects, dust, accidental contact, and water.

For example, an electrical socket rated IP22 is protected against insertion of fingers and will not be damaged or become unsafe during a specified test in which it is exposed to vertically or nearly vertically dripping water. IP22 or 2X are typical minimum requirements for the design of electrical accessories for indoor use. Click here for more information on codes.

Light distribution pattern

Distribution pattern means how far forward of the effective light output reaches. It was measured based on a grid representing distances in units of Mounting Height (MH) from the luminaire. This pattern is defined by tracing an area representing light distribution at 50% of maximum candela. The highter the type value, the farther the light can reach.

Type I: Its light distribution pattern was a narrow ellipse with linear distribution. The type I distribution is ideal for narrow walkways or bike paths for 1 to 2 lane roadways. It's intended to be located at or near the center of the pathway, approximately two mounting heights in width.

Type II: Its light distrubtion pattern was wider than Type I. The type II distribution is ideal for wider walkways, entrance roadways, bike paths and other long and narrow lighting applications for 4 lane roadways. Intended to be located near the side of a roadway, approximately 1.75 mounting heights in width.

Type II: The type III distribution is ideal for roadway, general parking, and other area lighting applications. Intended to be located near the side of the area, approximately 2.75 mounting heights in width.

Type IV: The type IV distribution is especially suited for wall mounting applications and for illuminating the perimeter of parking areas. Intended to be located near the side of the area, which is over 2.75 mounting heights in width. It produces a semicircular distribution with essentially the same candlepower at lateral angles from 270 to 0 to 90 degrees.

Type V: Its light distribution pattern is in a round or squre pattern. The type V distribution is ideal for general parking and area lighting applications. Intended to be located at or near the center of an intersection or in a large area, since it has no beams but produces a circular distribution with essentially the same candlepower at all lateral angles.

Lumen

One lumen is defined as the luminous flux of light produced by a light source that emits one candela of luminous intensity over a solid angle of one steradian.

Lux

The metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. One lux equals 0.0929 footcandles.
NEMA rating NEMA stands for National Electrical Manufacturer Association. NEMA ratings are standards that are useful in defining the types of environments in which an electrical enclosure can be used. There is a correlation between NEMA ratings and IP ratings. However, this correlation is limited to dust and water. Please click on here for more details.

 IP code details:

Code breakdown

IP Indication

First digit after IP:
Solid Particle Protection

Second digit after IP:
Liquid Ingress Protection

Third digit after IP, always be a letter:
Additional Protections

IP

Single Number: 0-6

Single Number: 0-8

Single Letter

Mandatory

Mandatory

Mandatory

Optional


Solid particle protection

Level

Object size protected against

Effective against

0

No protection against contact and ingress of objects

1

>50 mm

Any large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part

2

>12.5 mm

Fingers or similar objects

3

>2.5 mm

Tools, thick wires, etc.

4

>1 mm

Most wires, screws, etc.

5

Dust protected

Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment; complete protection against contact

6

Dust tight

No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact

  

Liquid ingress protection

Level

Protected against

Testing for

Details

0

Not protected

1

Dripping water

Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmful effect.

Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 1mm rainfall per minute

2

Dripping water when tilted up to 15°

Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15° from its normal position.

Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 3mm rainfall per minute

3

Spraying water

Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect.

Test duration: 5 minutes
Water volume: 0.7 litres per minute
Pressure: 80–100 kN/m²

4

Splashing water

Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

Test duration: 5 minutes
Water volume: 10 litres per minute
Pressure: 80–100 kN/m²

5

Water jets

Water projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

Test duration: at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute
Pressure: 30 kN/m² at distance of 3m

6

Powerful water jets

Water projected in powerful jets (12.5mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

Test duration: at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 100 litres per minute
Pressure: 100 kN/m² at distance of 3m

7

Immersion up to 1 m

Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).

Test duration: 30 minutes
Immersion at depth of 1m

8

Immersion beyond 1 m

The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects.

Test duration: continuous immersion in water
Depth specified by manufacturer

Additional letters

Level

Protected against access to hazardous parts with

A

Back of hand

B

Finger

C

Tool

D

Wire

 

NEMA codes

1

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling dirt.

2

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling water and dirt.

3

Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, wind blown dust and damage from external ice formation.

3R

Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, and damage from external ice formation.

 3S

Outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against rain, sleet, windblown dust and to provide for operation of external mechanisms when ice laden.

 4

Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose-directed water and damage from external ice formation.

 4X

Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose-directed water, and damage from external ice formation.

 5

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against settling airborne dust, falling dirt, and dripping noncorrosive liquids.

 6

Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection again hose-directed water, and the entry of water during occasional temporary submersion at a limited depth and damage from external ice formation.

 6P

Indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during prolonged submersion at a limited depth and damage from external ice formation.

 7

Indoor use in locations classified as Class I, Division 1, Groups A, B, C or D hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70) (Commonly referred to as explosion-proof).

 8

Indoor or outdoor use in locations classified as Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C or D hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70) (commonly referred to as oil immersed).

 9

Indoor use in locations classified as Class II, Division 1, Groups E, F and G hazardous locations as defined in the National Electric Code (NFPA 70) (commonly referred to as dust-ignition proof).

 10

Intended to meet the applicable requirements of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).

 12K

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against circulating dust, falling dirt, and dripping noncorrosive liquids.

 13

Indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust, spraying of water, oil, and noncorrosive coolant.


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